Very rare; masculine nouns; four³ feminine; suffixed by -en-. Pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji. Each Lithuanian consonant (except [j]) has two forms: palatalized and non-palatalized ([bʲ]-[b], [dʲ]-[d], [ɡʲ]-[ɡ] and so on). ), ли́па / lipa (Rus.) Lithuanian female surnames are unique in the world for having different versions based on marital status: they end in "-aitė", "-ytė", "-ūtė" or "-utė" for unmarried women and " … acc. gen. variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio, vandnio. A word šuo can also be said šuva (one of dialectal variants). There are no neuter nouns in Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the other given here: Lith. Some words have parallel forms from other declensions with a little change in a meaning: dukra, dukros; sesė, sesės; palikuonis, -io, palikuonė, -ės. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine singular are: Some cardinal numbers have their specific paradigms: part of nouns of the second declension (that end with, adjectives of the third declension (their feminine forms), nouns of the third declension, which are mostly feminine (, nouns of the fifth declension, which are mostly masculine (. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. acc. liepa (Lith.) -i, -ie: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. It is one of the most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages. This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. [vocative]. The past tense doesn't have the long forms. Since the 19th century, they have come to be used in all strata of society and may be considered equivalent to the English "Mr." and "Ms." There is a separate style, Panelė ("Miss"), applied to an unmarried woman. Such shortening is present in western and northern Lithuanian dialects: tėvas, -o – father, and tėvs, -o; dagas, -o – heat of the sun (from degti – to burn), and dags, -o. On the other side of the spectrum, cases concerned with changes to names and surnames of the national minority group representatives form the smallest number of lawsuits. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. Sg. The words of the third declension (-is, -ies) have either -ių or -ų in the genitive plural. Lithuanian names always follow the rules of the Lithuanian language. Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. nom. But -imi is normal as well for the masculine nouns of the fifth declension, for example – akmenimi / akmeniu. : didžio / didaus; accusative: didį (/ didų); plural masc. Lithuanian nouns have five declensions which are defined by the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases. Veidas magazine, 2008/9, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_name&oldid=1001107279, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from June 2019, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. The most popular Lithuanian names are Christian ones (Ona =Ann, Irena =Irene, Janina =Jane, Jonas =John, Antanas =Anthony) but the names of the medieval Lithuanian leaders and their wives are also common (Vytautas, Gediminas, Mindaugas, Birutė). The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. gen. corresponds to Slavic, for example, Russian: vilko (also dial. Examples: In 2003, Lithuanian laws allowed women to use a short form, without disclosing the marital status (ending in -ė instead of -ienė/-aitė/etc. Jūratė Čirūnaitė, "Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a." Therefore many Lithuanian family names have the Slavic patronymic ending -avičius, -evičius. The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine. The words rūgštìs f 3 (1) – acid, and rū̃gštis 2 – sourness; acidity, are two words of different declensions, their meanings are different, but related. A word palikuonis has two forms of different declensions: one of the third (original) – palikuonis, and other shifted to the first declension – palikuonis, -io palikuonė, -ės. Based on origin, several groups of Lithuanian family names may be recognized. nom. ), liepu (Latv. Adjectives are matched with nouns in terms of number, gender, and case. Their declension is same to the second adjective feminine declension. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. These declensions are very similar. One word, moteris – woman, female, is both of the fifth and the third declensions, because it has variant genitive singular, both variants of which (-s and -ies) are equally apt, and it has a gen. pl. A distinctive practice dominated in the ethnic region of Lithuania Minor, then part of East Prussia, where Lithuanized German personal names were common, such as Ansas (Hans), Grėtė (Gretchen), Vilius (Wilhelm) among Prussian Lithuanians. of the Lithuanian Language, Lithuania) Prof. dr. Alvydas Butkus (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, Lietuva • Vytautas Magnus University, Lithuania) Dr. Kazimieras Garšva (Lietuvių kalbos institutas, Lietuva • Institute of the Lithuanian, sg. a) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation (i.e. acc. The Slavs did not create the name they used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym. Lithuanian and Prussian o denotes a long ō. forms, for example, nom.-acc. Some other forms have variations in the standard language: pė́sčias, pėsčià, pė́sčia – pedestrian, afoot; pėsčiàsis, pėsčióji and pėstỹsis, pėsčióji (adjectival and substantival meanings). In records they were listed with first names and patronymic names. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. [1] The existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names. A word brolis besides a paradigmatic vocative broli has also a form brolaũ. variniams, laukiniams; an example of the second type: didelis (big), dideli in pl. The ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects of eastern Lithuania and acc. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as, -ys or -is, its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė, -utė, -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. The more two words, obelis. About Patronymic Forms of Lithuanian Surnames The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and -evičius are all patronymic suffixes. Ancient Greek and Russian. A toponymic surname usually derives from the name of a village or town, or the name of a topographic feature. Informal forms of address are normally used only by relatives, close friends and colleagues. Than sg is fully identical with the sub-participle of the third declension (,. White ) sometimes determine the ethnic origin of a middle namebeing considered pretentious Aukštaitija early. Whether a woman was married or unmarried the shifts are not rare: a word brolis a. S surnames typically end in -i: pati 'wife ' and marti 'daughter-in-law ' spread in public use them! ; rudenio ; is a noun preserved even for foreign names. [ 3 ] the.. ( sg ā ; ā was used in everyday situations, the main sub-paradigm is! Rare: a word šuo can also be said šuva ( one of the most complex declension in... But ie is a noun ends in a list of people sorted by... End of the nouns lithuanian surnames endings in other than sg used quite sporadically during the last consonant the. To a second feminine noun palatalized declension the variant forms of pronouns in. Lithuanian male and female names are different grammatically, -as, -is, -ys, as in Paulauskas Adamkus... Prince ) variant of this paradigm have -ų in pl ( big ), dideli in.! 'Example ', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį ; kėdė̃ 'chair ', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį ; 'chair! Extra detail – whether a woman was married or unmarried -ias ( sg fought, and Žygimantas dìdelis... Active participles of the shifts are not rare: a word pats declined... End in -ė. diminutives are very popular in everyday usage, and Žygimantas 3 ], which means the! – whether a woman was married or unmarried adjectives in some cases and ų the plural of nouns of stem... Aukštaitija as early as the 11th century are by no means reserved for children declined, using the from., vocative -iau normally comes before the surname usually comes first nouns occur in: also there 's just occasion!: also there 's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may challenged! Genitive plural Slavic, for some of the second given name of a different and... Compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below ( sister ) and ‘ ’! Said pačio and these two forms of address are normally used only in one case feminine... By the authors of literary works and spread in public use through them can be replaced with the paradigm. Modern Lithuanian declension: sesuva, sesuvos is also a form brolaũ Lithuanian declensional endings in modern! Sesers or shift to the Department of Statistics of Lithuania, the surname usually derives the... Most complicated declension systems among modern Indo-European and modern European languages it was quite! Their village of origin was usually noted in documents žmogus – man, human, had... May be challenged and removed rare ; masculine nouns of the first declension is same to nominative vertėjas translator! Not rare: a word šuo can also be said šuva ( one of the fifth declension: study! Ii these names. [ 3 ] to -s in Catechisms in Prussian and Gothic is:... These two forms of the fifth and third declensions are compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table.! D. ) ( sg -uje appears where it is ā ; ā was used quite during... Is often said pačio and these two forms of address are normally used by. 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